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Integrated geography Environmental geography is concerned with the description of the spatial interactions between humans and the natural world. It requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment.
Environmental geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the physical geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields.
Furthermore, as human relationship with the environment has changed as a result of globalization and technological changea new approach was needed to understand the changing and dynamic relationship. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include: Geomatics Digital Elevation Model DEM Geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography.
Geomatics emerged from the quantitative revolution in geography in the mids. Today, geomatics methods include spatial analysisgeographic information systems GISremote sensingand global positioning systems GPS.
Geomatics has led to a revitalization of some geography departments, especially in Northern America where the subject had a declining status during the s.
Regional geography Main article: Regional geography Regional geography is concerned with the description of the unique characteristics of a particular region such as its natural or human elements. The main aim is to understand, or define the uniqueness, or character of a particular region that consists of natural as well as human elements.
Attention is paid also to regionalizationwhich covers the proper techniques of space delimitation into regions. Related fields Urban planningregional planningand spatial planning: Use the science of geography to assist in determining how to develop or not develop the land to meet particular criteria, such as safety, beauty, economic opportunities, the preservation of the built or natural heritage, and so on.
The planning of towns, cities, and rural areas may be seen as applied geography. In the s, the regional science movement led by Walter Isard arose to provide a more quantitative and analytical base to geographical questions, in contrast to the descriptive tendencies of traditional geography programs.
Regional science comprises the body of knowledge in which the spatial dimension plays a fundamental role, such as regional economicsresource managementlocation theoryurban and regional planningtransport and communicationhuman geographypopulation distribution, landscape ecologyand environmental quality.
While the discipline of geography is normally concerned with the Earththe term can also be informally used to describe the study of other worlds, such as the planets of the Solar System and even beyond. The study of systems larger than the Earth itself usually forms part of Astronomy or Cosmology.
The study of other planets is usually called planetary science. Alternative terms such as areology the study of Mars have been proposed but are not widely used.
Techniques As spatial interrelationships are key to this synoptic science, maps are a key tool. Classical cartography has been joined by a more modern approach to geographical analysis, computer-based geographic information systems GIS.
In their study, geographers use four interrelated approaches: Although other subdisciplines of geography rely on maps for presenting their analyses, the actual making of maps is abstract enough to be regarded separately. Cartography has grown from a collection of drafting techniques into an actual science.
Cartographers must learn cognitive psychology and ergonomics to understand which symbols convey information about the Earth most effectively, and behavioural psychology to induce the readers of their maps to act on the information.
They must learn geodesy and fairly advanced mathematics to understand how the shape of the Earth affects the distortion of map symbols projected onto a flat surface for viewing.
It can be said, without much controversy, that cartography is the seed from which the larger field of geography grew. Most geographers will cite a childhood fascination with maps as an early sign they would end up in the field.
Geographic information systems Main article: In addition to all of the other subdisciplines of geography, GIS specialists must understand computer science and database systems. GIS has revolutionized the field of cartography: In this context, GIS stands for geographic information science.
Remote sensing Main article: Remote sensing Remote sensing is the science of obtaining information about Earth features from measurements made at a distance.
Remotely sensed data comes in many forms, such as satellite imageryaerial photographyand data obtained from hand-held sensors. Remotely sensed data may be analysed either independently of, or in conjunction with other digital data layers e. Quantitative methods Main article: Geostatistics Geostatistics deal with quantitative data analysis, specifically the application of statistical methodology to the exploration of geographic phenomena.
Geostatistics is used extensively in a variety of fields, including hydrologygeologypetroleum exploration, weather analysis, urban planninglogisticsand epidemiology.
The mathematical basis for geostatistics derives from cluster analysislinear discriminant analysis and non-parametric statistical testsand a variety of other subjects.
Applications of geostatistics rely heavily on geographic information systemsparticularly for the interpolation estimate of unmeasured points. Geographers are making notable contributions to the method of quantitative techniques.Learning from and about Artists.
Reading Persuasive Writing. Reward Ideas. Sign Language. Space in Art. Spanish Holidays and Special Occasions. Spelling Tips and Ideas. A set of plans and images, linked to the QCA Art Unit 2B, based on the work of Andy Goldsworthy.
7 - Geography definition is - a science that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction of the diverse physical, biological, and cultural features of the earth's surface. How to use geography in a sentence. This brilliant Unit pack includes all the lesson packs and additional and home learning resources included in the PlanIt Year 1 Geography unit 'Wonderful Weather'.
Explore this section for a huge range of free resources and ideas for all of your English lessons.
Alhamdulillaah we started off Secondary level for geography with Maimoonah. The textbook we have chosen is maashaa Allaah very nice and very easy to use, There is a lot of information but all of them are concise and interesting.
KS3 Vocabulary checklist Author: Sebastian Created Date: 2/27/ PM.