The following YouTube video provides a brief introductory discussion of the purpose and use of classroom assessment techniques as well as two specific examples of types of techniques. Classroom Assessment Techniques CATS are methods of formative evaluation that are designed to improve student learning. Unlike summative assessments that evaluate what the students learned once the lesson is complete, CATS are done frequently and provide the instructor with feedback about student learning and comprehension as the lessons are being taught. These assessments involve students in the educational process and provide more qualitative information about student learning, rather than just looking at the quantitative view provided by test scores.
Models are primarily of interest to researchers and professionals within the field of speech language pathology. The article is designed to give a basic orientation to people outside of the speech pathology profession because these are the people who will spend more time with the child than the speech pathologist.
Awareness of what to observe can contribute volumes to the development and implementation of a program for a child with ASD. No one person has to feel that he or she must master all the information and become an expert observer or data taker. By intentional is meant: Does the child EVER deliberately signal a message to others?
It is easier to answer this question if the child engages in very direct, observable behavior. For example, does he look toward people, even briefly, before signing, pointing, gesturing or saying something?
He could also take someone to the location of the item that he wants. If he seems vaguely aware of the other person who needs the message, however, he may still be intentional.
Even if he is not looking directly at the person, he may have used peripheral vision to check if someone is around. More observations might be needed in case of the latter. This is not intentional communication since it is not deliberately signaled to someone.
Is there any pattern to the types of messages that are intentional vs. Is the child more or less intentional with specific people, in specific locations, within specific activities, or at specific times of the day?
Examples of Intentional I vs. I Jake sees that the teacher has a new toy on the table. N Tim sees the new toy on the table and goes and grabs it.
I Jake takes his teacher by the hand, walks to the cupboard, and points upward. N Tim wanders around the room and goes over to tug at the handles of the cabinet; he does nothing to indicate he needs help; he is determined to meet his own need of getting a specific toy.
N Tim screams and throws things after an intense morning; his teacher thinks he needs a break and directs him to a quiet corner of the room. Means of Communication The child will have to use some way of sending others a message.
It does not mean the messages are always clear or there is no guessing. The intentional messages are deliberately targeted for someone whereas non-intentional are not. Things to observe and share include the following: How does the child communicate intentionally?
What else is used? It is good to have a variety of ways of communicating. I Gives picture card to teacher in order to get popcorn. N Flips picture card in repetitive manner, discards it, and reaches for popcorn. I Presses button of electronic communication device with voice output to request puzzle.
Looks toward teacher and walks to help self since no indication that this was not OK. N Presses button repeatedly on an electronic communication device and fixates on the action.
After playing with it, he tires, and gets up to go get something else. The topic of purpose can be looked at in two ways. First, what does the child accomplish by communicating a message TO others through some form of communication and secondly, how does he respond to the same purposeful message when provided to him FROM others?
So, for example, can a child request an object? What happens if a person requests an object from him? While the second question is important, this article will only focus on the first question i.
It may be easier for the non-speech pathology person to have noted the characteristics of intentionality and means of communication before addressing the element of purpose.
The following two categories are not inclusive of every purpose for communication. They basically reflect the common types of communication that are part of a repertoire of a young child under the age of five.
A few other references at the end can be used to add more detail.Classroom discussion, formative assessment and statement of teaching purposes are considered some of the most effective classroom teaching methods.
These methods make sure that learners understand the purpose of the material that is being taught and actively reconstruct the knowledge that is transmitted in the classroom.
Constructivist teaching methods embrace subsets of alternative teaching styles, including modeling, coaching, and test preparation through rubrics scaffolding.
All of these are designed to promote student participation and necessitate a hybrid approach to teaching.
Observing another teacher's classroom and having your own class observed both have several educational purposes, including giving you the ability to describe instructional practices, evaluate inequities that exist for a specific student or group of students, and .
doing/saying, instructional methods, teacher-students interaction, and flow of the sessionâ€¦etc.
Generally, the ASP will use a checklist tool designed for this purpose of . Formative: Classroom Assessment's purpose is to improve the quality of student learning, not to provide evidence for evaluating or grading students.
The assessment is almost never graded and are almost always anonymous. The purpose of this study was to explore teachers’ practices of classroom assessment in Philippines and Indonesia in the terms of purposes and procedures. Therefore, to meet the .