In order to conceptualize environmental contexts, Bronfenbrenner described four ecological systems: This context is closest to an individual and encompasses interpersonal relationships and direct interactions with immediate surroundings. The mesosystem includes interactions between various aspects of the microsystem.
More Essay Examples on Family Rubric It is stated that the body supports and directs all body actions and operations influenced by the outward interaction with the environment. That explains why the child thrives with positive results with proper input or negative repercussions with negative input.
The microsystem refers to the interaction and relationship that the individual has with significant figures in their life such as, family, peers, school, and the community Berns, The microsystem has the biggest impact on the child because it is whom the child comes in contact with the most.
How a child acts or reacts to these people in the microsystem will affect how they treat her in return. In the microsystem, relationships have impact in two-directionsboth away from the child and toward the child.
Bronfenbrenner calls these bi-directional influences, and he states they occur among all levels of environment. The interaction of structures within a layer and interactions of structures between layers is integral to his theory.
At the microsystem level, bi-directional influences are strongest and have the greatest effect on the child. However, interactions at outer levels can still impact the inner structures.
An example of a positive microsystem would be a nurturing caring family, who gives their child opportunities to initiate activity and live in a language rich environment.
The child feels security from parents that model desirable behaviors, so the child is confident to model them as well. An example of a negative microsystem would be the orphans in Romania under the regime of Nicolae Ceausescu who experienced Reactive Attachment Disorder.
This is when the absence of a consistently available attachment figure or maltreatment of these babies caused severe social and emotional consequences later.
It is likely there is a critical period for the development of neurological pathways underlying the organization of the attachment system and that early care experiences are central to this development. This exemplifies why the microsystem period is so crucial.
The impact on a child depends on the number of interrelationships and the quality. If these links are strong and consistent there will be a desirable academic performance.
The difference between the mirco which means small and the meso which means intermediate systems are implicated in their names. These significant contexts of development are crucial and without a strong first link like the family the second link cannot attach properly.
Good example of a positive mesosystem experience would be the families participating in the parent committee meetings we have at my school. We plan cultural celebrations, for the families to gather, meet each other and network.
Our Cinco De Mayo Festival last year demonstrated cultural pride, and excellent socialization by the adults for the children to model. If the child is being raised with different parenting styles by both, it is detrimental to the linkage.
The third system is the Exosystem which is a setting that children do not participate, but it does affect them in one of their microsystems.
This has a big impact on the daughter. Children in the exosystem do not participate, but are affected by this component. The community helps children learn roles, and children are shaped by the system they are in.
This can have positive and negative consequences. Military children are a special breed, they must understand when their parents receive their orders, and they must follow where ever the military tells them to go. Children of poverty whose family members are dependent on social programs have esteem issues dealing with this system.
It is clear other factors resulting from the poverty contributed to the negative outcomes and even lowered expectations from teachers. This is an extreme example of a negative bio-directional link.The bioecological model is a theoretical model of gene–environment interactions in human development.
This model, first proposed by Urie Bronfenbrenner and Stephen J.
Ceci,  in , is an extension of Bronfenbrenner's original theoretical model of human development, called ecological systems theory. Bronfenbrenner identified four systems that each contains rules, norms, and roles that powerfully shape development.
He called these the microsystem, the mesosystem, the exosystem, and the macrosystem. Bronfenbrenner development. Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory focuses on the quality and context of the child’s environment. He states that as a child develops, the interaction within these environments becomes more complex.
American psychologist, Urie Bronfenbrenner, formulated the Ecological Systems Theory to explain how the inherent qualities of a child and his environment interact to influence how he will grow and develop. The ecological systems theory holds that we encounter different environments throughout our lifespan that may influence our behavior in varying degrees.
These systems include the micro system, the mesosystem, the exosystem, the macro system, and the chronosystem. The bioecological model of human development that Urie Bronfenbrenner developed gives light to the fundamental impact that social interactions and environment have in human development.
He describes four distinct systems that are the most influential: microsystems, mesosystems, exosystems, and macrosystems.