After a tour of Latin America inthe American diplomat George Kennan wrote a memo despairing that the region would ever achieve a modest degree of economic dynamism, social mobility, or liberal politics. The culture itself was, in his… The thought of Karl Marx The written work of Marx cannot be reduced to a philosophymuch less to a philosophical system. The whole of his work is a radical critique of philosophy, especially of G. It is not, however, a mere denial of those philosophies.
References and Further Reading 1. The initial idea of an independently founded institute was conceived to provide for studies on the labor movement and the origins of anti-Semitism, which at the time were being ignored in German intellectual and academic life.
Not long after its inception, the Institute for Social Research was formally recognized by the Ministry of Education as an entity attached to Goethe University Frankfurt. While never officially supporting any party, the Institute entertained intensive research exchanges with the Soviet Union.
This particular confrontation led Grossman to leave the Institute. The following sections, therefore, briefly introduce some of the main research patterns introduced by Fromm and Horkheimer, respectively. Since the beginning, psychoanalysis in the Frankfurt School was conceived in terms of a reinterpretation of Freud and Marx.
A radical shift though occurred in the late s, when Adorno joined the School and Fromm decided, for independent reasons, to leave. Such a character was found to have specific traits such as: As pointed out by Jay: As a number of commentators have pointed out, there is an important distinction that should be drawn between authoritarianism and totalitarianism [emphasis added].
Wilhelminian and Nazi Germany, for example, were fundamentally dissimilar in their patterns of obedience. What The Authoritarian Personality was really studying was the character type of a totalitarian rather than an authoritarian society.
Furthermore, arguing against Cartesian and Kantian philosophy, Horkheimer, by use of dialectical mediation, attempted to rejoin all dichotomies including the divide between consciousness and being, theory and practice, fact and value.
Differently from Hegelianism or Marxism, dialectics amounted for Horkheimer to be neither a metaphysical principle nor a historical praxis; it was not intended as a methodological instrument. Indue to the Nazi takeover, the Institute was temporarily transferred, first to Geneva and then in to Columbia University, New York.
Two years later Horkheimer published the ideological manifesto of the School in his Traditional and Critical Theory  where he readdressed some of the previously introduced topics concerning the practical and critical turn of theory.
InAdorno joined the Institute after spending some time as an advanced student at Merton College, Oxford. Gradually, Adorno assumed a prominent intellectual leadership in the School and this led to co-authorship, with Horkheimer, of one of the milestones works of the School, the publication of Dialectic of Enlightenment in Interestingly, and not surprisingly, one of the major topics of study was Nazism.
This led to two different approaches in the School. One marshaled by Neumann, Gurland and Kirchheimer and oriented mainly to the analysis of legal and political issues by consideration of economic substructures; the other, instead, guided by Horkheimer and focusing on the notion of psychological irrationalism as a source of obedience and domination see Jayp.
He built himself a bungalow near other German intellectuals, among whom were Bertold Brecht and Thomas Mann as well as with other people interested in working for the film industry Wiggershausp. Only Benjamin refused to leave Europe and inwhile attempting to cross the border between France and Spain at Port Bou, committed suicide.
Theses on the Philosophy of History. The division of the School into two different premises, New York and California, was paralleled by the development of two autonomous research programs led, on the one hand, by Pollock and, on the other hand, by Horkheimer and Adorno.
Pollock directed his research to study anti-Semitism. This research line culminated into an international conference organized in as well as a four-volume work titled Studies in Anti-Semitism; Horkheimer and Adorno, instead, developed studies on the reinterpretation of the Hegelian notion of dialectics as well as engaged into the study of anti-Semitic tendencies.
The most relevant publication in this respect by the two was The Authoritarian Personality or Studies in Prejudice. After this period, only few devoted supporters remained faithful to the project of the School. Inhowever, the Institute was officially invited to join Goethe University Frankfurt.
Upon return to West Germany, Horkheimer presented his inaugural speech for the reopening of the institute on 14 November One week later he inaugurated the academic year as a new Rector of the University. Yet, what was once a lively intellectual community became soon a small team of very busy people.
Horkheimer was involved in the administration of the university, whereas Adorno was constantly occupied with different projects and teaching duties.
In addition, in order to keep US citizenship, Adorno had to go back to California where he earned his living by conducting qualitative research analysis. Marcuse remained in the United States and was offered a full position at Brandeis University. Adorno returned to Germany in August and was soon involved again in empirical research, combining quantitative and qualitative methods in the analysis of industrial relations for the Mannesmann Company.
Inhe took over Horkheimer position as director of the Institute for Social Research, and on 1 July he was appointed full professor in philosophy and sociology. Some of his significant works in this area included Philosophy of Modern Music and later Vers une Musique Informelle.Primal Alpha Beast Review.
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