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This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Objectives Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD are the third largest cause of emergency hospital admissions in the UK. This systematic literature review explored the relationship between the hospitalization rates and the COPD comorbidities, anxiety, and depression.
Papers identified were assessed for relevance and quality, using a suitable Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool and Mixed Methods Assessment Tool. Results Twenty quantitative studies indicated that anxiety and depression led to a statistically significant increase in the likelihood of COPD patients being hospitalized.
These comorbidities also led to an increased length of stay and a greater risk of mortality postdischarge. Other significant factors included lower Body-Mass Index, Airflow Obstruction, Dyspnea, and Exercise scores, female gender, lower socioeconomic status, poorer patient perceived quality of life, increased severity of lung function, and less improvement in dyspnea from admission to discharge.
Four qualitative studies revealed that patients saw anxiety and depression as a major factor that affected their ability to cope with and self-manage their condition. Implications Findings from the systematic review have highlighted a need for better recognition and treatment of anxiety and depression amongst individuals with COPD.
Ongoing research will develop and test strategies for promoting better management and self-management as a means of reducing hospital admissions. COPD, exacerbations, depression, anxiety, hospital admissions Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD is a major cause of chronic morbidity and mortality worldwide.
Further increases in its prevalence and mortality are expected to make it the third leading cause of mortality by It leads not only to pulmonary damage but also to systemic impairment.
|Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.|
|Associated Data||Abstract Background In recent years, a growing number of methods for synthesising qualitative research have emerged, particularly in relation to health-related research.|
|However, going into greater detail concerning these issues would be beyond the scope of this paper. However, depending on the depth and range of the extant literature, the initial focus of the case study may be quite focused or broad and open-ended.|
|Both methods provide important information for evaluation, and both can improve community engagement. These methods are rarely used alone; combined, they generally provide the best overview of the project.|
There is also a growing awareness of systemic inflammation, cardiovascular, neurologic, psychiatric, and endocrine morbidities that are common comorbidities of the condition and have a long-term detrimental effect on the morbidity and mortality of COPD patients. The presence of daily symptoms and a high exacerbation frequency are other important factors.
General practitioner consultations for COPD in one year range from 4. They showed that patients with COPD who suffered frequent exacerbations experienced a significantly greater decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second FEV1 than patients who had infrequent exacerbations.
Exacerbations are more common than previously believed 2. Anxiety and depression are common comorbidities of COPD.
Untreated or incompletely treated depression and anxiety may also have major implications for compliance with medical treatment, due to the effects on cognitive functioning and the decreased effectiveness of any self-management activities that the person may instigate.
Depression may also be a significant predictor of mortality following hospitalization for acute exacerbation. Objectives Our objectives were: These other factors may also include the ability to cope and to self-manage their condition, as well as other comorbidities and social factors.
The study design for the research studies sourced was not specified and not restricted by date or place where the study was carried out; this was done so as not to restrict the review.
The inclusion criteria for the review were studies relating to having COPD and the comorbidities of anxiety and depression and patients being admitted to the hospital with an acute exacerbation of COPD.
Initially, the Cochrane Review database was searched to ensure that a similar review had not already been carried out nor was it in the process of being conducted. Electronic databases were then searched to elicit literature relevant to the review question set.
Other potential research papers were identified from the reference lists of the articles read in full text for the final review. Abstracts from relevant conferences that were identified by the database searches were also reviewed, and authors were contacted for further information on relevant abstracts.
This extra clarification and checking process has been identified by the CRD 27 as good practice to ensure a complete inclusion of relevant data. The selection of the studies retrieved from the electronic searching was done in distinct stages.
Initially, all duplications were removed. Then, the titles and abstracts were reviewed against the inclusion criteria for the review. Remaining articles were then screened by reading the full text, which then left the remaining articles to be reviewed in a final review Figure 1.
Two researchers reviewed the full-text articles to decide on the final articles to be included. A third reviewer was available to resolve any disagreements that occurred in this process.
This peer review was also carried out during the data extraction stage of the review.qualitative study preceded a quantitative one, which proved to be very helpful when interpreting the quantitative data (Livingstone & Lemish, ); the same happened with . Quantitative Research Assessment Tool The purpose of this assessment tool is to help users quickly evaluate the merit of quantitative research studies that are listed on the CCEERC Web site.
using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) worksheet for qualitative research. School of Health Sciences and Social Work research? What types of questions does qualitative research ask? How does qualitative research differ from quantitative?What can qualitative research contribute to Critical Appraisal Skills healthcare.
Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search to identify qualitative and quantitative studies published in the UK since of GPs’ and practice nurses’ attitudes to the management of depression. In this article we argue that both qualitative and quantitative methods have their strengths and limitations, depending on the research question under investigation.
We examine some of the advantages of qualitative methods, paying particular attention to the value of such methods for feminist researchers. Integrating qualitative and quantitative methods should be done from conception, design to conclusion Often ensures triangulation Has study been adequately justified?