The Middle Ages The period of European history extending from about to — ce is traditionally known as the Middle Ages. The term was first used by 15th-century scholars to designate the period between their own time and the fall of the Western Roman Empire. The period is often considered to have its own internal divisions:
Preface The popular lines at the beginning of this booklet keenly illustrate several of the key concepts present in a discussion of death-culture in the late Middle Ages. At its essence, the culture of the macabre represented a kind of dialogue between those mortals who would all, someday, face death, and that inevitable, undefeatable force that took their life.
Medieval culture fixated on those physical aspects of death that strike modern people as viscerally disturbing: While our culture, in its increasing secularism, and in its sanitization and silencing of death, is radically different from that of the European Middle Ages, the survival of such images as those depicted in the Appalachian song demonstrates the continuity, albeit uncomfortable, between the macabre culture of the late Middle Ages and our own.
The Black Death Introduction The Black Death refers to the period in Europe from approximately towhen bubonic plague ravaged the European population and initiated a long-term period of cultural trauma from which, one could argue, we have not yet completely recovered.
Every nightmare of apocalyptic pandemics, from bird flu to AIDS to Ebola, registers, on some level, with the horrifying possibility An introduction to the history of the high middle ages returning to a world where each and every member of one's family falls victim to a merciless, fast-acting, insidious, and physically horrifying sickness.
In crowded areas where black rats and their fleas were common, or in small rural hamlets where these hosts lived alongside the human population, the mortality was staggering, and archaeologists have in recent decades uncovered the remains of small villages that essentially disappeared during the period of the Black Death.
Understanding the macabre spirit of death-culture in late medieval Europe requires a familiarization with the terror and panic of epidemic disease, and, more generally, with the fear of catastrophe and sudden death.
It is only recently, in the age of mass-media, where photographs, motion pictures, and, more recently, the internet have exposed us to the devastation wrought by such natural disasters as the south Asian tsunami of and Hurricane Katrina, and to such unnatural disasters as the Holocaust of World War II, that a large portion of the world population has become exposed to horrific images akin to those presented by the Black Death.
On a cultural or psychological level, then, we can experience second-hand, through images, what most of the population of the medieval world experienced first-hand: However, what remains irrecoverable for us in the comparatively safe modern world is the sense of sudden, wide-scale demographic change experienced by the medieval world.
The most recent estimate is by Ole J. Benedictow, who in his magisterial The Black Death Most average estimates state that about one-third of the population died from the disease in the years spanning the Black Death.
This sense of widespread epidemic catastrophe is terrifyingly evoked in Pieter Bruegel the Elder's famous painting The Triumph of Death. Bruegel figures death as a legion of skeletons, attacking the underbelly of society in an overwhelming wave. From peasant to jester to executioner to king, no one is spared.
The Disease Three seemingly harmless members of the natural world -- the black rat, the rat flea, and a common bacteria that lives in the flea's intestine -- are the host, vector, and agent of one of the most prolific killers of humankind -- bubonic plague.
The bacterium Yersinia pestis and the vector by which it spreads, xenopsylla cheopis, the oriental rat flea, were discovered respectively in andsolving the millennia-old question as to what caused the catastrophic disease.
Yersinia pestis can be discerned by its elongated safety-pin appearance when examined from blood cultures from plague patients. The rat flea commonly carries the bacteria in its gut and frequently infects rodent populations, which are its common hosts. Plague can be transmitted to humans that live in close contact with rodents, as the fleas bite humans as well.
The common black rat, rattus rattus, was the host to the oriental rat flea, and the primary means of plague transmission during the Black Death. The plague's signature symptom was the bubo, a large, painful, red swelling usually located in the neck, armpit, or groin, the result of a swollen and infected lymph node.
Beginning about the size of an egg, the bubo could swell to the size of an apple before death. In addition to the bubo, victims of the plague suffered from high fever, chills, exhaustion, occasional pneumonic symptoms, and eventual septicemia, shock, and death.
In the Preface to his Decameron, Boccaccio describes the dark spots nowadays recognized as indicative of septicemia that would gradually spread over the person's skin as a sure sign of death. In a woodcut from Nuremberg reproduced in Platt, p.
The suffering patient has additional buboes on his head and thigh. Unfortunately, while lancing the painful swellings was believed to provide relief from pain, it more frequently led to excessive blood loss, shock, and death.
The student in the lower left hand corner holds a flask with the patient's urine. The Spread of the Pestilence Bubonic plague is generally believed to have arrived in Europe through trade routes that connected the Mongol empire with Europe through Genoese trading posts.
The plague arose in central Asia, quite possibly from an overpopulation of ground rodents called marmots burrowing in the Mongolian Plateau. Rodents, and their deadly fleas, could have easily stowed away on trading caravans headed west, to Europe, east, further into China, and south, into India.
All of these areas were devastated by the plague. According to Kelly, the crucial hub in the transmission of plague into Europe was the Genoese mercantile network, which included outposts at Caffa on the Black Sea and Constantinople see Chapter 1 of The Great Mortality.
Of particular importance in the history of the bubonic plague was the arrival, in October ofof twelve Genoese merchant vessels in the port of Messina in Sicily: In their bones they bore so virulent a disease that anyone who only spoke to them was seized by a mortal illness and in no manner could evade death" Benedictow, p.
Friar Michael da Piazza recorded these words in his chronicle, thus giving us the first description of the entrance of bubonic plague into western Europe. Two crucial things are of note in this passage: The Genoese had extensive contact not only with eastern Europe and the Byzantines but the Mongols as well.
In the 14th century, as now, the populations that traveled most frequently became the ideal transmitters for epidemic disease. Second, Friar Michael is quick to blame the Genoese for their "nefarious deeds" which brought the pestilence upon them.
While the Genoese were already disliked in other regions of Italy, possibly for their mercantile success and subsequent riches, the passage reveals that witnesses of the plague had to place blame for the arrival of the pestilence on the sins of other people. It was this same attitude that produced some of the violent outbursts of anti-Semitism later on during the period.Medieval Europe Web Sites.
BBC: Middle Ages the most famous document in Scottish history. Introduction to Medieval Seals In the Middle Ages seals were employed to assert the authenticity of a document and also showed how rulers wanted to be seen by their subjects.
At this website the Medieval Institute at the University of Notre Dame. The Middle Ages introduction and overview 1. The Middle Ages: Introduction The Middle Ages was the period of European history between AD and AD.
During the High Middle Ages England would develop a Parliament and the radical concept that the law applied to the King!• It would also wage a series of wars with another rising.
The Middle Ages were a period of European history between the fall of the Roman Empire and the beginning of the Renaissance.
Learn more about the . Middle Ages History. Length: 30 weeks Content-type: Text-based and approximately hours spent on the course work, it can count for one high school credit in history. Please see Course Details for more information.
Course Introduction. TruthQuest History is a deep and rich literature-based history study. High Middle Ages. At this point, we’ve talked about the fall of the Roman Empire, the rise of the Catholic Church, and the practices of feudalism and manorialism that began after a long series of invasions throughout Europe in the ninth and tenth centuries, so let’s move on to the period of time known as the High Middle Ages ().
Browse this content A beginner's guide Introduction to the Middle Ages A new pictorial language: the image in early medieval art The medieval calendar.